As part of a new initiative at Microsoft, we are using AI, new analytics tools, broader data sets, and a growing staff of experts to track and forecast this cyber threat. Using these new capabilities, we estimate that Russian cyber influence operations successfully increased the spread of Russian propaganda after the war began by 216 percent in Ukraine and 82 percent in the United States.
A number of individuals and organizations attempted to address the issue of propaganda. For instance, Robert Sherwood, playwright and member of the Algonquin Round Table, suggested that rather than laboring to discredit the propaganda efforts of others, the U.S. should take a more active role in creating its own propaganda. He advocated for the creation of a non-partisan, non-governmental organization to be called the National Propaganda Bureau, with Luce taking the chairmanship of the planned organization, writing
A radically different tactic was embraced by the Institute for Propaganda Analysis, Inc. Founded in 1937 and composed of journalists, teachers, and social scientists, among others, the organization aimed to expose and counter propaganda by educating the populace to recognize it through the use of critical thinking, rather than relying on pure emotion. As part of this effort, the Institute came up with seven devices propagandists use and the reason why these devices work:
As you know from your reading, Squealer is the master of propaganda in Animal Farm. While it is easy to Google propaganda from earlier eras in history (i.e. Nazi propaganda, communist propaganda), what propaganda have you seen in the world more recently (within the last 10 years or so)? Consider recent or ongoing political elections, international news, or even local politics. [Hint: you will find a lot of propaganda in internet memes.]
He said state-backed outlets like RT and Sputnik play key roles in creating and disseminating pro-Kremlin propaganda, which can then be further seeded across the internet by fake accounts, bots and online trolls.
"The Kremlin is happy to operate RT bureaus around the world at a loss because they're not in it for revenue, they're in it for the propaganda value," said Nu Wexler, a former communications staffer at Twitter, Facebook and Google.
Seeing how the Chinese Communist Party slandered Falun Dafa and used the media to continually propagate rumors and propaganda, Ms. Zhang decided to go to Beijing to appeal. She sent a letter to Party leaders to let them know how her family had benefited from practicing Dafa.
Late fifteenth-century English politics was marked by the so-called Wars of the Roses (c. 1455-1485), a series of dynastic battles fought for control of the throne between the two rival houses of Lancaster and York. UPenn Ms. Roll 1066 is a cultural artifact of this struggle: the fifteenth century sees a revival of genealogical literature (once popular in the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries) as pedigree and lineage were increasingly relied upon by the royal houses to stake their claims to the crown. When the house of Lancaster was replaced by that of York in 1461, the production of genealogical chronicles kicked into overdrive, the Yorkists churning out documents that present Edward IV as the rightful king, despite contemporaneous Lancastrian histories positioning him as usurper. Such propaganda was crucial at a time of such political uncertainty: Henry VI, Edward IV, and their heirs would play a game of musical thrones for more than a decade before a relative unknown named Henry Tudor arrived on the scene to claim the crown from Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field (22 August 1485), effectively ending the Wars of the Roses and the Plantagenet Dynasty.
7. BAND WAGON: This common propaganda method is when the speaker tries to convince us to accept their point of view or else we will miss out on something really good. The Band-Wagon technique is often used in advertising. Examples: "This is the wave of the future", "Be the first on your block", "Act Now!". You might ask yourself "What if I was the only one on my block because no one else was interested (duped)?".
8. ARTIFICIAL DICHOTOMY: This is when someone tries to claim there are only two sides to an issue and that both sides must have equal presentation in order to be evaluated. This technique is used to dupe us into believing there is only one way to look at an issue, when in fact there may be many alternative viewpoints or "sides". Like most propaganda techniques it simplifies reality and therefore distorts it, often to the advantage of the speaker. A classic example is the "intelligent design" versus "evolution" controversy.
20. tu quoque ATTACK: Pronounced too-kwo-kwee. This technique is when you respond to your opponent by accusing them of committing a logical fallacy or propaganda technique instead of addressing the claim of your opponent's argument and evidence. Ex. "You too are using fear as a propaganda technique"
Veronica Laputska is currently PhD Candidate at the Graduate School for Social Research, Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Polish Academy of Sciences and a co-founder of the EAST Center (Warsaw). Her thesis examines visual propaganda at the national commemorations in modern Belarus. Ms. Laputska holds a Specialist Diploma in International Relations from the Belarusian State University, an MA in European Studies from the European Humanities University, an MA in East European Studies from the University of Warsaw, as well as an MA in Economy and Society from the Lancaster University. Veronica speaks Belarusian, Czech, German, Polish, Russian, Ukrainian and Yiddish.
German MEP Rebecca Harms has said the E.U. must make more efforts to counter fake Russian news influencing public opinion in the 28-nation bloc. She argues an effective communications strategy must be drawn up to prevent anti-E.U. sentiment spreading further through social media and Kremlin-backed news outlets such as RT (formerly known as Russia Today) and the Sputnik news agency. But Ms. Harms argues fighting propaganda with propaganda is not an option.